Deaf Students Can

Carter, K.C. – Proceedings of the Reading/Berkshire Conference, March 1985

Technologies such as the palantype system, subtitles, use of computers linked to video equipment, radio microphones/ tape recorders were discussed and their use in a learning and teaching environment. There was a general consensus by deaf participants that technical aids should be used and evaluated under research conditions (see page 38 – Group G –Technology).

Further, Higher and Continuing Education for the Hearing Impaired – A Feasibility Study

Carter, K.C. – Reading Consortium, 1985

hrough the application of technology in recent years, the lack of necessary literacy skills in deaf people will become even more apparent. Never before has printed information been more important than since the introduction of computers into education, employment or private use’ (see Literacy Workshop page 16).

Technology and Deaf People

Leaman, J., Carter, E., Crowley, C., Carter, K. C. – Joint Workshop Report, Deafax and The University of Reading Computer Science Department, 1986

A number of workshops were outlined featuring the interaction of technology and deaf peoples’ needs. These ranged from Computer Language Programs, Teaching of Computer Skills, Palantype Computer Aided Transcription System & Radio Microphone Hearing Aid System. The Computer Language Program focused on “tenses” and when used with 3 deaf students was deemed successful to improve language skills especially when they were able to work independently.

European Deaf Students Can…

Carter, K. C., Crowley. C. – Proceedings of an EEC Conference Report, University of Reading, 1988

‘Interactive video and its potential in education and training for deaf people was seen as an effective way to promote reading and comprehension skills (see pages 57-59).

‘One of the greatest sociological and cultural developments concerning deaf people this century has been the introduction of teletext subtitles (see page 60).

‘Text telecommunications (On-line chats, Electronic Mail, Bulletin Board Services, Fax, Databases and Vision phones) were now seen as an essential means of corresponding between deaf and hearing people in Europe’ (see pages 62-63).

Telecommunications for Deaf children

Carter, K.C., Oxland, R. – BBC Children in Need Report, First Phase (1992-95), Deafax, 1995

‘The skill areas incorporated in the telecommunications training covered: communications, advocacy, organising and expressing meaning through writing, typing, speaking and signing; editing work; punctuation,grammar, and syntax, structuring conversation and dialogue… 1000 deaf and hard of hearing children and adults (parents, teachers and others involved in deafness) were part of this project… Recording and analysing the transcripts alerted the trainers/researchers to specific literacy problems experienced by the majority of deaf and hard of hearing children. (see Section 6, Deafness and Literacy Development, pages 64-72).

Telecommunications and Literacy for Deaf Children, Level 1

Carter, K.C., Lansdown, H.C., Mootoo. A. – BBC Children in Need Report; Deafax, 1997

‘The programme is designed for children of primary/junior school age to ensure they make good use of the equipment and support their communication. It has four units focusing on “Communication”: learning about communication; communicating by telephone; communicating by textphone; and communicating by writing. It was considered highly successful for the children, teachers and Deafax trainers in terms of awareness raising about the technology, literacy motivation and wanting to communicate over the telephone system’.

Telecommunications and Literacy for Deaf Children, Level 2

Carter, K.C., Lansdown, H.C., Mootoo. A. – BBC Children in Need Report; Deafax, 1997

‘Level 2 leads the children into learning about amplification, ringing tones, Typetalk, changing code to CCITT, Minicom V, Compact, using batteries in the Compact and Fax Machines. The four units continue to be used with more role play… the children become more confident in using the technology and see it as important skills for their literacy and communication development’.

Telecommunications and Literacy for Deaf Children, Level 3

Carter, K. C., Lansdown, H.L., Mootoo. A. – BBC Children in Need Report; Deafax, 1997

‘Level 3 introduces the children to TURS (Text Users Rebate Scheme), Typetalk’s Text Users’ Emergency Service, Minicom V11, Compact and Fax machines…(different ones )… The children discovered through role play how to think about time and cost implications associated with the different methods of communication namely telephone, textphone, letter or fax. They also realised how important it was to express themselves in plain English. The manuals for all 3 levels proved to be enormously popular with the tutors.

Fax Buddies

Carter, K. C., James. M. & Evans. K. – BT Special Needs `Education/Deafax/NCET Project Report. Deafax, 1997

At 8 schools, 150 deaf children were linked as “buddies” to adult employees at BT and NCET (National Council for Educational Technology). The children were from 7 to 14years old. Main improvements were assessed as…greater awareness in sequencing messages and writing for purpose; clearer handwriting ; better drafting and re-drafting leading to improved spelling and punctuation; development of a greater range of language usage and more

Telecommunications and Information Network for Deaf Children

Carter, K, C., Lansdown, H, C., James, M – report to BBC Children in Need, Second Phase (1995-1998), Deafax, 1998

This second phase report outlines the development of a greater use of ICT with a stronger emphasis on the importance of literacy skills for deaf children. The use of the Internet and videoconferencing feature prominently. There is an undeniable fascination in knowing that anyone, including deaf children, can navigate the world from one’s desk within this global classroom. Due to this explosion in the Internet, Deafax set up three important initiatives namely Deafchild International, Deafchild UK and Deafchild India.

Deafchild India: Survey of the Education of the Hearing Impaired and Deaf Children in Tamil Nadu

Carter, K. C., Lansdown, H. C., Stillman, S., Stillman, I. – International Community Fund, Deafax, 2000

Data were collected from 44 schools and six sources: head teachers, teachers, students, parents, deaf employees and employers. Computers were in common use since around 1990 but 6 years previously the Internet and Email revolution started, affecting the way deaf children are being educated even if the progress is very slow. The use of computers is a definite incentive to improve reading and writing skills. Also acquiring IT and English skills gives Tamil deaf children a distinct advantage with regard to future employment.

Deafchild UK TCLC (Telecommunications and Literacy for Children Programme), Level 1

Carter, K, C., Lansdown, H, C., Mootoo, A. – Report for the BBC Children in Need; Deafax, 2001

The aim of the Deafchild UK programme was to help children and especially those who are deaf, to communicate using Information and Communications Technology. It was designed for the Primary and Junior School age (Key Stages 1and 2). Level 1 (Tutors’ manual) and included training about why we communicate, different ways of communicating and equipment we can use such as telephones, faxes, textphones, typetalk plus computers and video conferencing.

Deafchild UK TCLC, Level 2

Carter, K. C., Lansdown, H, C., Mootoo, A. – Report for the BBC Children in Need, Deafax, 2001

The Tutors’ Pack Level 2 consists of role play exercises, telephone ringing tones, amplification, making and using Typetalk calls, overview of Minicom 5000,7000,the compact, sending and receiving emails, filing emails, the fun directory, and making a video-conferencing call. As with all Deafax programmes the technology was used to improve literacy levels and written communication.

Deafchild UK TCLC, Level 3

Carter, K, C., Lansdown, H, C., Mootoo, A. – Report for the BBC Children in Need, Deafax, 2001

The Tutor’s Pack Level 3 consists of more role play exercises, ways of communicating, text users abbreviations, calling Typetalk’s emergency number, clearing a memo on a Minicom 7000, using Auto-Answer on Minicom 7000, saving names and numbers on Compact, saving a Memo on a Compact, scrolling on the Minicom 7000, clearing a conversation on a Compact, communicating by writing, using the Speaker key, fax programming chart, using websites, dictionary of IT definitions, sending and receiving an attachment, surfing the Internet.

Innovative ways of using ICT to improve literacy and communication skills for deaf learners

Carter, K.C., James, M., Lansdown, H.C. – Deafax paper presented to an International Conference on “Educational Technology for Deaf Learners”, National Technical Institute for the Deaf, New York State, 2001

Covers modes of communication including ICT and means of introducing deaf learners, their parents and teachers developed by Deafax in 1988-98. Projects included ones on Telecommunications for Deaf Children, Telecommunications and Literacy for Children, an English Literacy CD Rom for Deaf Children and ICT, Achievement and the Education Deaf Children. The paper outlines conferences and reports and the development of Deafchild International.

ICT, Achievement and the Education of Deaf Children, DfES Research Report, Phase One

Carter, K.C., Wald, M., Lansley, P.R., Bright, K. – DfES London, 2001

The National Surveys from 191 Institutions and representing ICT Environments of 3000 deaf pupils revealed some highly relevant information about the staff, communication, ICT background, ICT facilities, use of software packages and academic achievements. This report added to a growing body of knowledge and understanding of how ICT could contribute to improvements in deaf education and to literacy and communication in particular. One conclusion was that future phases of the Deafax research programme needed to work with Becta and Ofsted in ascertaining ways of measuring deaf pupils’ attainments in relation to the use of ICT. Phase 1 Surveys were for Schools for the Deaf and Hearing Support Units.

The report also contains a 15-page literature review, detailing ICT-related reports and other literature by Becta, NCET, BATOD and other British and American organisations and communication; computer as a teaching resource; computer aided learning/computer aided instruction; multimedia authoring; development of thinking skills; videoconferencing; speech recognition.

ICT, Achievement and the Education of Deaf Children, DfES Research Report, Phase Two

Carter, K. C., Lansdown, H. C. – Deafax, 2002

Phase 2 carried out a National Survey of Peripatetic Services with 43 Heads and Teachers taking part. A considerable amount of data was collected which covered case loads, distribution of pupils, hearing loss, communication modes, access to ICT, problems encountered, subjects and ICT, ICT training, ICT equipment, use of software packages, home/school use with ICT and academic achievements. The report along with other findings highlights that for deaf children to make effective use of communication technologies requires good written communication skills. The power of the Internet as a source of information is indisputable but pupils need to become more skilled at locating, selecting and assessing information to maximize its usefulness. This study once again helps the Deafax researchers to see how ICT is being embraced by pupils and teachers in a learning environment to enhance literacy and communication skills.

Barriers to Further Education for Deaf Learners

Carter, K.C., Crocker, M., Aurangzeb-Tariq, R., Clough, C. – Commissioned by the Birmingham and Solihull Learning and Skills Council, Deafax, 2003

This study covered the abilities and needs of deaf adults; the need for support; learner profiles; experiences with Learn Direct, as well University comparisons; and case studies and interviews with learners. The outcomes highlighted that there should be far more understanding of the effects of deafness on the whole person approach, language deprivation, different support for different learners, lecturers’ viewpoints, use of deaf trainers, role models and mentors; notes and handouts; varying types of communication and consideration for the learner’s viewpoint.

Deafax ICT and Literacy Skills Training to Deaf Adults in Greater Manchester

Clough, C., Priestley, T. – Final Project Report to the Learning and Skills Council, Greater Manchester, Deafax, 2003

The report follows up 36 deaf learners within Greater Manchester who took part in Deafax’s ICT training programme and also a survey of 13 Further Education institutions in that region. The deaf learners felt that their needs had been met throughout the course, not just from a communication perspective but also in relation to the training materials created and delivered, the venue selected, and especially having deaf people as tutors.

Deaf Graduates in Higher Education – Reflections on the use of ICT

Carter, K, C., Silver, H. – Pilot study report commissioned by JISC/TechDis (Higher Education Academy), Deafax, 2006

This pilot study was able to collate valuable information from 8 former deaf graduates from the last 5 years (2000-2005) about their views on higher education, Disabled Students Allowances, the use of ICT on their learning and communication and subsequent careers. The group, through questionnaires, interviews and case studies, recognised the “barriers to literacy” and therefore were anxious to have all the support, whether human or technological, to fulfill their academic potential.

New Horizons: Interactive ICT based teaching and Learning Resources for the Development of Deaf Children’s Writing and Communication Skills

Lansdown, H, C., Crombie-Smith, K., Hale, S., Mootoo, A., Carter, K,C., Silver, H. – Report to the Esmée Fairbairn Foundation, Deafax, 2006

The report includes a synopsis of a small evaluative study of Teachers of the Deaf and their use of ICT in teaching. The outcomes of this study helped to create the development of ICT based highly visual interactive module resources to aid teachers and pupils in the learning process. The modules cover literacy, PSHE (personal, social and health education), library facilities, travel, numeracy, music and a Good Practice Guide and Software Review – all following the key stage levels of the National Curriculum.

The significance of ICT (Information & Communications Technology) for the reading, writing & communication skills of deaf people

Carter, K,C., et al. – Final report to the Leverhulme Trust by the Deafax Research Unit, Reading, November, 2009

The project aim was to obtain data about the impact of ICT from controlled experiments, interviews and group discussions with deaf children and young adults about their experiences in learning to read, write and communicate, as well as from seminars on these and related issues with teachers of the deaf. Contexts were explored, notably past and current research in the US and elsewhere. The project approach included the use of British Ability Scales (BAS) and the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability (NARA tests) at 9-month intervals as baseline measures of general cognitive ability, reading (decoding) and reading comprehension. Other tests explored the impact of specific technologies and online ‘deaf-friendly’ materials. Staff and local administrators helped in a difficult time with the recruitment of schools to take part in the research. Questionnaires were completed by deaf pupils and teachers. Deaf teacher/researchers took part in some of the processes. Pupils involved in the BAS and NARA tests were divided into three groups ([a] hearing impaired with special IT support programme; [b] hearing impaired without such a programme; [c] no hearing impairment and no special programme). Little or no reading improvement was found across the time scale in groups [b] and [c]). Group [a] significantly improved their reading accuracy. There are some constraints, however, on conclusions drawn from these tests: Group sizes were relatively small, given the difficulties in recruiting participants. By the second round of tests some pupils had left (e.g. to other schools), and groups were not ideally matched for age. Future studies would benefit from using smaller age ranges within groups, and levels of pupils’ hearing difficulty should be estimated and used as controlling variables, since in the groups in this project the pupils’ difficulties ranged from profound to mild hearing impairment.

Tests associated with other IT programmes were the result of pupils being shown particular technologies or taking modules relating to IT and communication, and being tested at different points of time. Those who saw online materials and were tested for the ‘European Computer Driving Licence’ achieved improved marks (but not sufficient to pass the ECDL). In all of these cases the different strategies for exploring relationships between the use of IT and deaf pupils’ literacy and communication skills reflect the difficulty in the recent period of recruiting schools for the deaf or deaf units in mainstream schools for research purposes. The project counterbalanced this difficulty by adopting a multi-pronged approach, bringing together a range of insights into the use of IT hardware and software by deaf pupils and teachers of the deaf, different kinds of tests, and seminars on teaching reading and exploring visual literacy. There are important resulting pointers for development and future research, and Deafax is already planning and taking initiatives, some collaboratively, that will benefit from this project and its outcomes